Environment and Regional Trade Agreements
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- Table of Contents
- List of Acronyms and RTA Memberships
- Executive Summary
- + Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Environment in Regional Trade Agreements
- + Key environmental provisions in RTAs
- + Countries’ mandates on environment and RTAs
Types of RTAs and their environmental components
- + Managing differing levels of environmental commitments: an emerging problem?
Chapter 3. Negotiating Environmental Commitments in Regional Trade Agreements: Some Key Questions
- + Why do some countries include environmental commitments in RTAs?
- Why do some countries resist including environmental considerations in RTAs?
- What are the main difficulties in the negotiation of environmental considerations in RTAs?
- How have countries’ positions evolved?
- Which factors facilitate the negotiation of environmental considerations in RTAs?
- What are the (ancillary) benefits of environmental commitments in RTAs?
- + Basic institutional choices related to environment in RTAs
Chapter 4. Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Regional Trade Agreements
- + What have been the main benefits of carrying out assessments?
Country approaches to environmental impact assessment of trade agreements
- Analysis of EU, US, and Canadian approaches
Chapter 5. Environmental Co-operation
Key aspects of environmental co-operation
- + Types of environmental co-operation
- Factors determining the scope of environmental co-operation in RTAs
- Technical assistance and capacity building
- + A key example: capacity building under NAFTA
- Countries’ main motivations to include environmental co-operation in RTAs
- How have approaches to environmental co-operation in RTAs evolved?
- + Financing environmental co-operation
- + Institutions dealing with environmental co-operation
- + Areas of environmental co-operation in selected RTAs
- + Specific areas of environmental co-operation
- + Key factors for successful environmental co-operation under RTAs
- + Key aspects of environmental co-operation
Chapter 6. Environmental Standards and Enforcement of Environmental Laws
- + Key links between environmental standards and trade
- Setting levels of environmental protection
Types of provisions related to environmental laws and standards
- + Other mechanisms to enhance environmental performance
Chapter 7. Procedural Guarantees, Enforcement Mechanisms and Dispute Settlement
- Procedural guarantees
Enforcement mechanisms and dispute settlement
- + Public submission mechanisms
Chapter 8. Parties’ Right to Adopt or Maintain Environmental Regulations
Chapter 9. Public Participation and Consultation in RTAs
- Experience with public participation and consultation in RTAs
- Transparency and public participation before and during the negotiation of RTAs
- Public participation in conducting environmental reviews
- Public participation in RTA ratification processes
- + Public consultation in the implementation phase of RTAs
Chapter 10. Conclusions and Overview of Key Experiences
- Negotiating environmental commitments in RTAs
- Benefits of environmental provisions
- Key approaches to environment in RTAs
- Environmental impact assessments of RTAs
- Environmental co-operation
- Environmental standards and enforcement of environmental laws
- Enforcement mechanisms and dispute settlement
- Parties’ right to adopt or maintain environmental regulations
- Public participation and consultation
- + Annex A. Selected RTAs
- Annex B. Environmental Side Agreements and Chapters on Environment in RTAs
- Annex C. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessments of Selected RTAs*
- + Annex D. Provisions on Environmental Co-operation in Selected RTAs
Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have increased significantly in number over the past few years. The number of RTAs which include environmental provisions is also increasing. However, these provisions, and the experience related to their negotiation and implementation, have not been examined in depth yet. This study contributes to filling this gap. It provides an overview of approaches to environmental issues in RTAs and summarises country experiences in their negotiation and practical application. Regional and bilateral trade arrangements are surveyed, including customs unions and free trade agreements. The study is based on the analysis of RTA texts, and on literature examining their actual implementation, as well as on first-hand comments and input from experts from both OECD and non-OECD countries.